Research Projects

社会性や情緒の発達/Social-Emotional Development

グループ・マシュマロ課題 Group Marshmallow Test

  • 「マシュマロ課題」は、子どもの自己制御を調査する代表的な課題です。心理学者ウォルター・ミシェルが1960年代に開発したもので、「目先の欲求を我慢する能力」を調査します。具体的には、実験者が、子どもの前にマシュマロ1個を置き、15分間待つことができたらマシュマロ2個を貰えると伝え、部屋を去ります。ミシェルは、この課題を子どもが1人の状況で行いました。本研究は、この課題を子どもがグループの状況で行うもので、「グループ・マシュマロ課題」と名づけた、私のオリジナル案です。




  • This study examines how young children in Japan and the United States deal, in groups, with a delay of gratification task. It is a collective version of the “marshmallow test” of delay of gratification in young children invented by Walter Mischel in the 1960s. Mischel (2014) described his test as a simple experiment; this study is another simple experiment, one that changes the original from an individual to a group test and the context of the research from the lab to the preschool. I name it “Group Marshmallow Test” and it is my original idea. 

    This study will compare the strategies groups of preschool children in Japan and the U.S. use when faced with a delay of gratification challenge to find out whether “collective-regulation” exists. There are two research questions: how do children, in a group, deal with the task; and is there any difference between American children and Japanese children use of strategies to handle the task?

    This is a reconceptualization, rather than a replication of a classic U.S. study, based on theory from Japan. This study has important implications for both practitioners and scholars who work with and study young children in educational settings and, more generally, for conceptions of the interplay between individual and social processes.

    This is an ongoing research project. I am conducting the group marshmallow test with children in Japan and the U.S. as the first stage, then in the future, I would like to and am planning to add children in different places who are going through the different socialization process in a different environment.

Publication: Hayashi, A. (under review). A Group Version of the Marshmallow Test with Children in Japan and the United States.

Presentation at the IAIR 2022 Rapperswil Conference (Details-TBA): A Group Version of the Marshmallow Test with Children in Japan and the United States -Theoretical Argument and Preliminary Findings -